Urban Flux #34 INDONESIA Architecture Preface

《Urban Flux 城市空间设计》#34 'Indonesian Architecture' 印度尼西亚建筑 2013
《Urban Flux 城市空间设计》#34 'Indonesian Architecture' 印度尼西亚建筑 2013

URBAN FLUX magazine 《城市空间设计》VOL 34  2013年第6
Special Report 特别报道 PREFACE 前言

INDONESIA Architecture: Tropical and Emerging 新兴崛起的印度尼西亚热带建筑
Guest-editors 客座编辑: MovingCities /Bert de Muynck & Mónica Carriço 伯德孟 和 莫妮卡·卡瑞苏

INDONESIAN Architecture: Tropical and Emerging

On a random drive through many cities in Indonesia one encounters shopping malls, self-built houses, neo-Victorian villas, and mid- to high-rise buildings all in close proximity and, seemingly, all the result of an absence of urban planning. For example, in Jakarta – the capital of Indonesia – the population has grown from 4.8 million in 1975 to an expected 17.5 million by 2015, giving the impression that when it comes to architecture, anything goes. With Indonesia’s closeness to the Equator, architects have reacted to its hot and humid tropical climate-where daily temperatures range from 25-38°C-by internalizing living, leisure, and work, with shopping malls – catering to the burgeoning middle – class – being the epicenters of urban life and interior design ingenuity. Yet, the first signs of a more sustainable and contemporary approach to architecture in the world’s fourth largest country [population-wise] are beginning to show.

According to Andra Matin, one of Indonesia’s most acclaimed independent architects, “tropical design is more like an experimental eld rather than an established style”, leading to an architecture that tries to “find the best answer to ever-varying questions”. On being an architect in Indonesia, Andra Matin asserts, “our culture is like an unpolished diamond; and I believe this gives way too many possibilities. Because building regulations aren’t strict and the Indonesian culture is so diverse and rich, one has the freedom to put one’s inspiration to work.” Contemporary Indonesian architecture, reflecting the hundreds of cultures and thousands of islands in the archipelago, sets the attention to local conditions and infuses these with global inspiration.

While guest-editing this special issue of UrbanFlux, MovingCities and Indonesian architect Danny Wicaksono wishes to give a selected insight into the notions of tropical architectural design by focusing on what local architects have constructed, researched and learned. Most importantly, it is the embracing of the climatic condition as a design parameter that influences architectural designs and gives way to particular design strategies and use of materials. These climatic concerns are not new. When we look at fragments of Indonesia’s twentieth century architecture – whether buildings are developed by Dutch (Hendrik Petrus Berlage (1856-1934), C.P. Wolff Schoemaker (1882-1949)), under colonial circumstances, or American (a title=”Paul Rudolph | Jakarta + Surabaya | MovingCities” href=”http://movingcities.org/movingmemos/paul-rudolph-indonesia-july11/” target=”_blank”>Paul Rudolph (1918-1997)), prior to the 1990s recession – a concern for the incorporation of the climate and the local culture is at the center of the country’s critical construction tradition. For this issue, scholar Mohammad Nanda Widyarta puts focus on the country’s colonial architectural history, Danny Wicaksono traces the origins of contemporary independent architectural practice after 1998 and Farid Rakun critically questions the country’s current creative, architectural and urban development.

On the other hand, this magazine tries to capture the dawn of a new architectural awareness in today’s Indonesia. Due to social and economical development, young architects get oftentimes the chance to build. Initially limited to family houses and villas, these young architectural practices – such as SUB, d-associates, Studio Dasar, HGT Architects, Willis Kusuma Architects – are set to explore, oftentimes with very limited budgets, a new architectural language. At the very same time, an older generation of architects – such as aforementioned Andra Matin, or Adi Purnomo/mamostudio, Eko Prawoto, ABODAY and Studio TonTon – have for more than a decade sought and found their position as architects, now they need an critical eye, international appeal and approval.

Adi Purnomo is somewhat of an exception within Indonesian architecture. His practice, mamostudio, is a deliberately low staffed: “A small studio is like a mosquito that touches the surface of water without being immersed in it.” The architect, who is also a writer and researcher, conveys, “…on the other hand, its level of professionalism could be questioned. Therefore, I am experimenting with the productivity of this kind of studio model.” Here, his built projects and research studies are featured – addressing issues of population, food production and infrastructural development. Complementing these approaches, an emphasis was also laid on non-profit and community based architectural endeavors, hence the inclusion of artist/architect Eko Prawoto’s community-based reconstruction of an earthquake stricken area and the Rumah Asuh’s “Preservation of the Mbaru Niang”-project, which received the Aga Khan Award for Architecture in 2013 and is located in a very remote condition.

MovingCities and Danny Wicaksono wishes to thank UrbanFlux editorial team in providing the opportunity to present, for the first time, contemporary Indonesian architecture to a Chinese public

words by Bert de Muynck & Mónica Carriço / movingcities.org
December 2013

Urban Flux 城市空间 #34 | d-associates's Kalibata House & Studio TonTon's Bea House
Urban Flux 城市空间 #34 | d-associates's Kalibata House & Studio TonTon's Bea House

Andra Matin | Rumah Agus Suwage [2012]
Andra Matin | Rumah Agus Suwage [2012]

Adi Purnomo | Tanah Teduh, Jakarta, 2011
Adi Purnomo | Tanah Teduh, Jakarta, 2011

Intiland Tower [detail] by Paul Rudolph | 2011
Intiland Tower [detail] by Paul Rudolph | 2011

Tropical Modernity, Life and Work of C.P. Wolff Schoemaker | SUN Architecture | 2011
Tropical Modernity, Life and Work of C.P. Wolff Schoemaker | SUN Architecture | 2011

印度尼西亚:新兴崛起的热带建筑

随意驾车在印尼的很多城市中穿行,你会发现很多购物商场、自建房、后维多利亚式别墅、中高层的塔楼都密集地坐落在一起,看起来好像没有任何规划而言。印尼的首都雅加达,城市人口预计从1975年的480万将增长到2015年的1 750万,这给人得出的印象和结论是:联系到建筑,无论什么样的都可以接受。再加上印尼离赤道很近,所以建筑师一般都会通过将居住、娱乐及工作空间置于室内,来回应湿热的气候环境;这里的日温可达到25到38摄氏度;而购物商场逐渐成为城市生活的中心及室内设计的展示平台,这也适应了不断增长的中产阶级的生活需求。即便如此,在这个全球第四人口大国内,一股可持续的、当代的建筑设计趋势将不可阻挡地降临。

印尼最著名的独立建筑师之一安德拉·马汀(Andra Matin)说过:“热带设计就好像一个实验场领域,而不是一种完成固定的风格。”这就将建筑引向“找寻解决不断变化的问题的答案”。作为印尼的一位建筑师,安德拉·马汀理解,“我们的文化就像一个未打磨的钻石,我相信这意味着更多的可能。因为建筑法规不是很严格,而且印尼文化非常丰富和多元,这样建筑师能够发挥的自由度也较大。”当代印尼建筑反映的是上百种多元文化及上千个印尼群岛岛屿,它将注意力聚焦当地条件,同时又融合国际设计灵感与风格。

作为本次《城市空间设计》的客座主编,MovingCities和印尼建筑师丹尼·维克索诺(Danny Wicaksono)希望能通过关注当地建筑师所建、所研究和所学习的内容,来深入介绍热带建筑设计这一概念。更重要的是,它将气候条件元素作为设计的重要考量点,从而形成一种特殊的设计策略和选材方法。这种对于气候的考虑并不是最近才有的。当你观察印尼20世纪遗留下来的部分建筑时,不管是由荷兰建筑师(贝尔拉格Berlage, 休梅克Schoemaker)在殖民时期设计的,还是由美国建筑师(保罗·鲁道夫Paul Rudolph)在20世纪末经济危机之前设计的作品,我们都能看到对于气候及当地文化的融入是这个国家建造传统的重要组成部分。对于这个话题,学者默罕默德·南达·韦德亚塔(Mohammad Nanda Widyarta)侧重的是国家的殖民建筑历史,而丹尼·维克索诺追溯从1998年之后兴起的当代独立建筑实践团队的起源,法里德·拉昆(Farid Rakun)则批判地审视如今印尼的创意产业、建筑及城市发展现状。

另一方面,本期杂志还试图捕捉当今印尼建筑的诸多新思潮。因为社会及经济的快速发展,年轻的建筑师能够有机会得到项目并实施建造。刚开始可能只是家庭住宅和别墅,但慢慢涵盖更多类型,这样的年轻事务所包括SUBd-associates、达萨工作室(Studio Dasar)、HGT建筑事务所(HGT Architects)、威利斯·库苏马(Willis Kusuma)。他们的目的是探索,虽然预算和资金有限,但是却毫不妥协地追寻一种另类的建筑语言。与此同时,一批老一辈的建筑师,如之前提到的安德拉·马汀(Andra Matin),阿迪·普尔诺摩/mamostudio(Adi Purnomo/mamostudio),艾科·普拉沃托(Eko Prawoto),ABODAY事务所和Studio TonTon工作室,在近乎10年的时间内,他们以一种辩证的眼光找寻和发现他们在国际影响和声誉下作为建筑师的角色和责任。

阿迪·普尔诺莫可能是印尼建筑里的一个例外,他的工作室mamostudio故意保持尽可能小的规模:“一个小的工作室就好像水蚊子,它贴近水面,但是不会被水包围和淹没。”这位建筑师,同时也是一位作家和研究者表示“但另一方面,人们会质疑工作室的专业性,因此我是在试验这种工作室的工作模式。”工作室里展示着建成的项目和研究性的项目,它们突出人口、食品生产、基础设施建设等问题。与这一类形成补充的是另外一种致力于非营利性或社区型建筑项目的团队,这些项目包括由艺术家/建筑师艾科·普拉沃托以社区为基础的震后重建项目,以及Rumah Asuh团队的曾获得2013阿卡汗建筑奖(Aga Khan Award for Architecture)的位于极为偏远地段的Mbaru Niang保护项目。

MovingCities 和丹尼·维克索诺在此感谢《城市空间设计》杂志为此提供的一次前所未有的展示机会与平台,使中国读者能够深入了解当代印尼建筑。

文 伯德孟 和 莫妮卡·卡瑞苏 (Bert de Muynck & Mónica Carriço) / movingcities.org
(张萃 译)2013年12月

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INDONESIA Architecture 新兴崛起的印度尼西亚热带建筑

《Urban Flux 城市空间》#34 Indonesia Architecture | guest-edited by MovingCities 2013
《Urban Flux 城市空间》#34 Indonesia Architecture | guest-edited by MovingCities 2013

About URBAN FLUX

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About MovingCities

MovingCities is a Shanghai-based think-tank investigating the role of architecture and urbanism in shaping the contemporary city. Established in 2007 by Bert de Muynck [BE] and Mónica Carriço [PT], MovingCities publishes, collaborates talks and walks, and operate as embedded architects. During the past years MovingCities has conducted research, lectures, creative consultancy and workshops in China, Israel, Sweden, Netherlands, Finland, Indonesia and Italy.

Acknowledgment

MovingCities wishes to thank the many individuals who contributed their valuable time and expertise through the interviews, texts, photography and projects that form the foundation of this issue. 感谢:MovingCities在此对接受采访、提供文字、图片以及项目案例的诸位表示由衷的感谢,感谢他们对于胡同专辑所付出的宝贵时间及专业建树。
For further inquiries, updates, background, interviews and lectures related to
URBAN FLUX #34 Indonesia Architecture contact MovingCitiesinfo [at] movingcities [dot] org

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